C h r o n o l o g y
CIWL de-Luxe trains on the routes to the South until WWII, many ones only in winter season and not daily:
1883: (Dec. 8): Calais - Paris - Nice - Rome-Express.
1884: replaced by Calais-Nice-Express, the later Calais-Mediterrannee-Express, from 1889 north of Paris combined with the short-lived Club Train, from 1888 also a Mediterannee-Express from Paris.
1889: Club Train London - Dover one via LC & DR, one via SER), Calais - Paris, de-Luxe by CIWL with day saloons, until 1893.
1990: Peninsular-Express (see chapter Indian Mail)
1896: Wien-Nizza-Cannes-Express, from 1898 St. Petersbourg-Wien-Nizza-Cannes-Express, change of trains at Warsaw.
1897: Calais-Mediterrannee-Express with a sleeper Wirballen - Ventimiglia from Nord-Express (1 season only).
1897: Nord-Sued (Brenner)-Express Berlin - Verona/Milan, from 1900 Cannes.
1897: Rome-Express Calais - Modane - Pisa - Florence - Rome.
1900: Riviera-Express Amsterdam - /Berlin - Strasbourg - Lyon - Ventimiglia.
1902: Berlin-Neapel-Express Berlin - Brenner - Naples.
1902: Rome-Express Paris - Modane - Livorno - Rome, sleeper to Florence and for Napoli-Palermo-Express, south of Rome combined with Berlin-Neapel (-Palermo) Express, from 1907 also to Taormina.
1904: Berlin - Wien-Express (Karlsbad, Marienbad), day saloon trains.
1905: Studies about a train ferry from Dover, plans for a de-Luxe London - Paris by CIWL saloons (12-wheelers) and a fourgon-bar.
1907: Daenemark-Express Copenhagen - Berlin, connecting with Berlin-Neapel-Express, until 1909.
1907: Aegypten Expess Berlin - Naples, combined with Nord-Sued-Express, connecting steamer to Egypt.
1908: Lloyd-Express Altona - Cologne - Strasburg - Gotthard - Genova for NDL steamers, from 1912 combined with Riviera-Express.
1911: Gotthard-Express Berlin - Karlsruhe - Genova
1911: Wien-Rom-Neapel (-Palermo, -Taormina)-Express combined with Berlin-Neapel-Express.
1912: Berlin - Tirol - Rom-Express
1913: Wien-Tirol-Riviera-Express Vienna - Villach - Bozen - Cannes, sleeper Budapest - Maribor - Cannes, at Verona combined with Nord-Sued (Brenner) Express.
1914: End of all these trains, caused by WWI
1919: 1919: Rome-Express Paris - Modane - Rome, from 1921 Naples, in 1919/20 sleeper to Taranto, short-lived, with steamer connection to Istanbul, in 1921 a saloon Paris - Aix-les-Bains, from 1924 sleepers from Boulogne and to Florence, from 1930 to Syracuse /Palermo.
1920: Mediterrannee-Express re-instated, from 1922 with blue all-steel sleepers 2647-80, unofficially "Train Bleu", from 1936 north of Paris with Fleche d'Or.
1923: Wien-San Remo-Nizza-Cannes-Express, later sleeper from Bucharest, Warsaw and Munich, at Ventimiglia combined with Riviera-Express, from 1935 sleeper Vienna - Rome.
1925: Milan-Nice-Cannes-Express, the first of CIWL's Pullman day saloon trains, followed by other Pullmans und in 1928 by DR's Rheingold Hoek-/Amsterdam-Basle - Lucerne with Mitropa service, south of Basle combined with CIWL's Edelweiss Amsterdam - Luxembourg - Lucerne.
1926: CIWL sleeping car trains in Italy, the Rome - Syracuse/ Palermo also with a diner.
1926: Fleche d'Or Calais - Paris, a CIWL "Pullman", from 1929 connecting Pullman Golden Arrow London - Folkestone.
1931: Riviera - Napoli-Express Amsterdam - /Berlin - Gotthard - Milan - Naples/ - Cannes, initially sleeper Berlin - Rapallo, from 1933 only Riviera-Express Berlin - Cannes with a sleeper Berlin - Rome.
1932: Rome-Express interrupted, in 1933 re-instated Paris - Rome, sleepers from Calais and to Florence, from 1936 Rome - Express via Pisa - Florence.
1934: Direttissima through the Appennine tunnel.
1936: Night Ferry London - Paris, a CIWL all sleeper train via Folkestone - Dunkerque train ferry, with F type sleepers.
1939: End of the CIWL de-Luxe trains.
Trains to the South after World War II, no longer exclusive de-Luxe:
1946: Calais-Mediterrannee-Express re-instated, from 1948 an exclusive CIWL train, from 1949 Train Bleu, from 1976 including couchettes.
1947: Rapide 1st2nd class Paris - Marseille, including diner and Pullman.
1947: Vienna - Venice - Rome with a CIWL sleeper, later Oestereich-Italien-Express, temporarily with a CIWL sleeper Warsaw - Rome from Balt-Orient-Express.
1948: Sleeping cars Calais - Paris - Rome, from 1951 south of Chambery temporarily an exclusive CIWL train.
1949: Skandinavien-Schweiz-Italien-Express Stockholm - Rome.
1950: Rapide Paris - Marseille became Le Mistral, from 1952 to Nice.
1951: Rome-Express Paris - Rome, sleepers from Calais and later to Naples, by CIWL marketed as an all-sleeper train, but temporarily combined with coaches, later also with a short-lived reclining seat 1st class (rebuilt PLM) coach Calais - Rome.
1953: ETR300 "Settebello", 7-car electric units on "lusso" day service Milan - Naples, then Rome. Later similar 4-car units ETR250 "Arlecchino" for 180km/h were introduced.
1954: Alpen-Express Copenhagen - Brenner - Rome.
1957: Trans-Europ-Express day trains, only 1st class, from 1987 replaced by EC trains 1st 2nd class.
1957: First car sleeper/auto-couchette trains.
1960: Italia-Express Stockholm - Rome, connected with Riviera-Express, replaced the Skandinavien-Italien-Express.
1960: Simplon-Orient-Express to Rome replaced the Rome-Express, which continued running as an ordinary train.
1961: Soviet RIC sleeper Moscow - Rome, until 1971 from Chopin via Vienna.
1969: Palatino Paris - Modane - Rome, exclusively sleeping and couchette cars, replacing the Rome section of the Simplon-Express.
1977: Italia-Express confined to Hamburg - Rome, in 1978 to Frankfurt -Rome, in 1998 stopped.
1977: Parthenon Paris - Brindisi, boat to Patras, temporarily.
1978: Napoli-Express replaced Rome-Express, stopped in 1996.
1981: TGV Paris - Marseille, replacing the Mistral; from 1988 TGV Paris - Nice.
1982: Venice Simplon-Orient-Express Boulogne - Venice a nostalgic all-sleeper de-Luxe tourist special by James Sherwood (see Orient-Express).
1984: Settebello ETR300 withdrawn.
1988: EC Michelangelo Munich - Rome replaced the Alpen-Express.
1994: Opening of the Channel Tunnel, Eurostar London - Paris/ Brussels.
1994: DB night Talgo Berlin Charlottenburg - Halle - Munich, with motorcar transport.
1995: TGV Paris - Ventimiglia
1996: TGV Paris - Modane - Milan, ETR500 Milan - Rome, ETR460 Lyon - Torino, later Milan (until 2002), Cisalpino Basle - Milan, later also Geneva - Venice, Zurich - Florence, Stuttgart - Milan.
1997: ETR480 running southward as far as Reggio and Taranto.
2000: Oresund bridge completed
2001: TGV Thalys Amsterdam - Brussels - Marseille replaced the Eurostar Brussels - Nice.
2001: Overnight Express, a combined passenger/ freight train Amsterdam - Milan, stopped after test. 2002: Palatino Paris – Rome via Simplon instead of Modane.
2002: Eurostar temporarily London - Avignon.
2008: EC Munich – Rome diverted to Rimini, then stopped.
2008: Fehmanrbelt project announced.
2010: Cisalpino transferred to SBB and FS, ETR600 introduced.
2012: Paris – Rome stopped.
2012: NTV in Italy.
2013: ICE London – Frankfurt and –Amsterdam expected.
2013: Zefiro for FS expected.
© 2007, Germany