C h r o n o l o g y
1862: Railway link Berlin - St. Petersburg (change of gauge and trains at Eydtkuhnen/ Wirballen) and Warsaw - St. Petersburg completed.
1873: CIWL sleeping cars Oostende - and Paris - Cologne. Cologne - Berlin, 1874 Berlin - Eydtkuhnen , until 1886.
1876: Sleeping cars Helsinki - St. Petersburg.
1896: Nord-Express, a CIWL de-Luxe Oostende - and Paris - Wirballen, Wirballen - St. Petersburg, Calais - Brussels feeder until 1902, from 1899 Nord - Express also to Warsaw.
1898: St. Petersbourg - Wien - Nizza - Cannes - Express, a CIWL de-Luxe with change of trains at Warsaw (until 1914).
1898: State Train, on alternate days CIWL's International Express or Siberien-Express, Moscow - Samara - Tomsk, 1899 to Irkutsk.
1898: Transcaspian railway Krasnovodsk - Tashkent/Andizhan completed.
1900: Imperial Chinese Railway (Beijing) - Yingkou completed.
1902: Train Kalisz - Moscow/Baku, connection from Berlin.
1903: Train de luxe Siberien by CIWL and State Train Moscow - Baikal, couchettes Misovaya - Manchuria by East Chinese, connection to Dalian and Shenyang.
1904: War Japan - Russia, rebellions, completion of the line Irkutsk - Misovaya, Japanese military line (60cm gauge!) Shenyang - Xinmin.
1906 Orenburg - Tashkent completed, later a CIWL sleeper Moscow - Andizhan
1906: Shipping service Vladivostok - Tsuruga, from 1912 express Tsuruga - Tokyo.
1906 or 07: Transsiberien-Express by CIWL and State Train Irkutsk - Harbin - Vladivostok by Chinese Eastern (for CIWL), Kurier St. Petersburg - Irkutsk.
1908: Express Changchun - Shenyang - Dalian Pier.
1909: Warsaw - Moscow (Nord-) Express, a CIWL de-Luxe
1909: Mail train Shenyang - Beijing, later de-Luxe, by Chinese Government Railways.
1910: Transsiberien-Express Irkutsk - Vladivostok/ Changchun by CIWL and Chinese Eastern Railway.
1912: Manchuria-Chosen Express Changchun - Busan, express boat to Shimonoseki, express Shimonoseki -Tokyo.
1912: Connection Beijing - Shanghai, between Pukou and Shanghai however change to Yangzi ferry
1914: Transsiberien-Express Moscow - Vladivostok/Changchun by CIWL.
1914: World War I started with the Habsburg attack on Serbia on July28 and German declaration of war on Russia.
1914: CIWL-trains stopped by WWI, but Siberian Kurier continued, including CIWL cars (until 1918?)
1916: CIWL- sleeper Petrograd (Petersburg) - Vladivostok until 1917.
1916: Misovaya - Khabarovsk - Vladivostok completed.
1918: Communists stopped Siberian trains and requisitioned CIWL cars.
1918: French-German armistice signed on Nov.11 at Compiegne aboard the former CIWL diner 2419
1919: CIWL prepared Vladivostok - Omsk
1920: CIWL sleeping cars Harbin - Vladivostok (until 1922?) Harbin - Changchun.
1921: Ordinary train D11/12 Paris - and Oostende - Warsaw, from 1924 with CIWL sleeper Paris - Riga.
1922: L111/112 London-Berlin-Express Hoek - Berlin, Mitropa de-Luxe until 1925.
1922: Transmanchourien Express Manzhouli- Harbin (-Vladivostok?), connection from Chita.
1925: Kurier 2/1 Moscow - Perm - Khabarovsk - Vladivostok, connection from Negoreloye, at least from 1927 Negoreloye - Manzhouli, later also from the Baltics.
1926: Nord-Express, CIWL de-Luxe, re-instated Paris -/Calais-/Oostende - Warsaw, from 1927 sleeper to Riga.
1927: CIWL - sleeper Paris - Negoreloye in ordinary D23/24, connecting with Kurier 2/1
1928: Nord-Express WL from Calais with Calais - Bruxelles - Pullman
1929: Nord-Express Oostende branch until 1933 with Oostende - Koeln - Pullman.
1930: Nord-Express extended to Stolpce, only in 1930.
1931: Manchuria occupied by Japan, traffic Chita - Manzhouli - Harbin interrupted, resumed in 1935.
1931: Shenyang - Beijing interrupted, resumed in 1934.
1931: CIWL sleepers escaped from Manchuria to China, services Beijing - Pukou, Nanjing - Shanghai, stopped in 1937.
1933: Stalin's special, known as the "Lux", introduced on government trips to the Black Sea.
1931: Turk-Sib railway completed.
1934: "Asia" Changchun - Dalian (1935 from Harbin)
1934: Through Express Beijing - Shanghai (the famous Shanghai Express) interrupted 1937-41(?)
1936: Nord-Express extended to Negoreloye, from 1937 only to Warsaw!
c. 1938: "Tairiku" and "Kowa" Busan - Beijing
1938: Under Chiang Kai-shek construction of a railway Kunming - Mengchien was started, intended as a strategic link with (British) Burma, never completed.
1939: Nord-Express and other expresses stopped by German war on Poland, started on 1st September.
1939: Hitler-Stalin treaty (August23), deportation of 118,000 Germans from Russia by train.
1940: German-French armistice signed on June22 at Compiegne aboard the former CIWL diner 2419.
1940: CIWL sleepers Berlin - Riga and Berlin - Kaunas - Gudagojis, connection Kurier 2/1. August: Soviets occupied Lithuania, connection Virbalis - Moscow. October: Military express Berlin - Warsaw - Malkinia, connection to Moscow and Far East.
1941: German war on Russia started on June22, borders closed.
1941: Start of Holocaust transports by the Nazis, the first from France in March 1942 to Auschwitz.
1944: Limited Expresses Shimonoseki - Tokyo stopped.
1945(?): Manzhouli - Harbin interrupted.
1945: Allied Forces' military expresses to West Berlin.
1945: Soviet military express Vienna -Sighetul, then Mukachevo, later Bad Voeslau - Zahony, until 1955.
1945: Soviet broad gauge Grodno-, Kowel-, Brest - Warsaw - Berlin, Lvov - Wroclav Brochow (Breslau), obviously also Iasi - Ploesti (Romania).
1945: Soviet military expresses to Legnica (Liegnitz), details unknown.
1945: In June arrived the first broad gauge express from Moscow at Berlin, from October replaced by the so-called Blauer Express on standard gauge Berlin - Brest, connecting train to Moscow.
1945: First train Seoul - Busan on Sept. 15, by US Military Railway Service (MRS).
1945: U.S. Army specials in Japan with rebuilt Japanese cars.
1946: Nord-Express re-started, now including state railways coaches, from 1957 no longer to Berlin.
1948: Soviet blockade of West Berlin until 1949, civil trains interrupted, but Allied military trains continued.
1950: Work started on Stalin's Polar railway from Salekhard (Vorkuta region) to Igarka (Yenissei river) given up in 1952 due to insurmountable difficulties.
1950: Naushki - Ulaanbaatar completed by Soviets.
1950: Korean War, until 1953
1952: Soviet through sleepers Prague - Kiev - Moscow. During later years the green sleepers ran from every Eastern capital to Moscow.
1954: Blauer Express replaced by Soviet military through trains.
1954: Train 2/1 Moscow - Harbin - Beijing, Soviet sleepers, also Moscow - Pyongyang.
1954: International Train Beijing - Pyongyang, from Shenyang with the Moscow - Pyongyang sleepers
1955: Express 102/101 Berlin - Moscow, exclusively Soviet sleepers.
1956: Soviet sleeper Vienna - Warsaw - Moscow.
1957(?): Express Beijing - Pingxiang, connection Pingxiang - Ha Noi (until 1978?) on metre gauge.
1958 (or 53?) Metre gauge Kunming - Ha Noi reopened. Metre gauge Laibin - Hanoi from 1952 or 54.
1959: DR diesel railcar "Berolina" Berlin - Brest, connecting with express 102/101.
1959: Express Moscow - Ulaanbaatar - Beijing, Chinese sleepers (the Transmongolian line had been open for freight as far as Jining in China already in 1956).
1960: Soviet sleepers Paris-and Hoek - Moscow from 1969 Ost-West-Express.
1960: Moskva-Express Berlin- Moscow replaced the D102/101.
1961: Chopin Vienna - Warsaw with Soviet sleeper Rome - Moscow.
1961: Shipping service Nakhodka - Yokohama, connecting trains Khabarovsk - Nakhodka.
1964: Tokaido Shinkansen, Japan's first high-speed line
1966: "Rossiya" Moscow - Vladivostok.
1968: Dukla Prague - Chop - Moscow.
1970: Completion Chengdu - Kunming. Only towards the end of the century metre gauge passenger trains Kunming - Ha Noi started.
1975: Japan Airlines demonstrated its magnetically-levitated HSST and announced plans to develop it commercially, then however stepped back.
1976: Express Ha Noi - Saigon (Ho Chi Minh) metre gauge.
1977: Electric train set ER 200 Leningrad - Moscow once weekly.
1979: Express Guangzhou - Kowloon (Hong Kong).
1986 or 87: Moscow - Ussuriysk - Tumangang - Pyongyang, temporarily combined with Rossiya, after c. 1990 only "on request", later regularly with Rossiya.
1988, September: Nostalgie Istanbul Orient Express of Alby Glatt on a special trip Paris - Hong Kong, ferried to Japan.
1989: Final opening of the BAM (Baikal - Amur - Magistrale), connected by train ferries with Sakhalin's Cape gauge.
1990: German reunification
1990: Soviet sleeper Madrid - Hendaye - Geneva - Moscow in Ost-West-Express, westward Moskva-Express, stopped in August 1993.
1991: Koenigsberg-Express Berlin-Kaliningrad, a tourist special until 1994.
1992: Traffic Russia-Georgia-Armenia stopped.
1992: "Gengis Khan" Almaty (Alma Ata) - Urumqui
1993: D1249/1248 Berlin - Saratov with Kazakhstan sleepers to Astana (Akmola), from 1995 to Omsk, from 1997 to Novosibirsk.
1993: Chinese project for a standard gauge to Zarubino, south of Vladivostok, avoiding North Korea, which targeted a competing free-trade zone on own territory.
1994: The last of Russia's various military expresses left Wuensdorf.
1994: Shipping services to Japan transferred from Nakhodka to Vladivostok.
1995: Train Harbin - Vladivostok/ - Khabarovsk.
1995: Maglev technology tests started in Japan for a future Chuo Shinkansen.
1996: Fex Beijing - Nanning extended to Dong-Dang, connection to Ha Noi on meter gauge.
1997: Fex Beijing - and Shanghai - Kowloon (Hong Kong).
1998: Ost-West-Express replaced by Russian sleepers Cologne-Moscow, 2004-05 Brussels – Moscow, 2006 Frankfurt – Cologne - Moscow.
1998: Xinshisu, electric unit from Sweden, Guangzhou - Kowloon (Hong Kong).
1999: Vltava Prague-/Bratislava- Katowice - Brest - Moscow/ St. Petersburg.
2000: D345/344 Berlin - Warsaw - Kiev/ Gdynia/ Vilnius, from Dec. 2003 Kaliningrad, temporarily Kharkov and Sochi.
2002: “Tulpar” Astana - Almaty.
2002: German maglev airport link Shanghai Pudong completed.
2003: Train ferry to Hainan island.
2003: Agreement North-/South Korea for reconnecting their rail networks in future.
2004: KTX high speed train Seoul-Taegu, then extended to Busan, later also Seoul - Mokp'o.
2004: Chinese decision for high-speed railways.
2005: Metropolitan Express accelerated night train Moscow - Kiev.
2006: Vltava/Chopin with an additional sleeper Prague - Saratov.
2006: High-speed trains Taipeh - Kaohsiung.
2007: East West Express Amsterdam - Moscow with sleepers Basle - Moscow and Munich - Hanover - Moscow, until 2010.
2007: Beijing-, Shanghai- and Guangzhou - Lhasa expresses.
2008: Sleeper Paris Est - Moscow temporarily.
2009: “Sapsan” high-speed St. Petersburg – Moscow, in 2010 also Moscow – Nizhni Novgorod.
2009: High-speed Beijing – Tianjin, to be followed by a high-speed network covering China and possibly neighboring countries.
2010: Express Moscow – Warsaw – Vienna – Brenner – Nice.
2010: “Allegro” Helsingborg – St. Petersburg.
2011: High-speed Beijing – Shanghai.
2011: Express Moscow – Berlin – Frankfurt – Paris.
2012: Polish high-speed project stopped.
Europe, China, Korea, Japanese Shinkansen technology standard gauge; Finland, Russia/USSR/CIS, Mongolia broad gauge 1534/1520 mm; old networks in Japan and Taiwan Cape gauge.
Map from the 1990s, not updated:
© 2007, Germany